Modernising Medicine: Hospital Design in Monmouthshire

Gwent Archives’ collection of twentieth-century hospital plans demonstrates how ideas about medical care provision developed and changed throughout the first forty years of the NHS. When it formed in 1948, the NHS in Monmouthshire inherited a wide variety of hospital buildings including numerous cottage hospitals in the valleys, General Hospitals such as Royal Gwent, large mental hospitals such as St. Cadoc’s in Caerleon, isolation hospitals for the treatment of infectious diseases such as Allt-yr-yn Hospital in Newport, former mansions such as Nevill Hall, and former workhouse infirmaries such as St. James in Tredegar and St. Woolos in Newport.

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Gwent Archives: This early twentieth century plan of Newport Workhouse shows the extensive nineteenth-century buildings designed for the accommodation of hundreds of people, which came into the hands of the NHS as St. Woolos Hospital in 1948.

The history of the medical aid societies in the valleys meant that Monmouthshire had a high number of cottage hospitals in 1948. One example is Blaina and District Hospital, which had opened in 1910 following subscriptions of two pennies in the pound from colliery workers to provide for industrial accidents, but the building was soon extended in 1915-16 to accommodate women and children.

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Gwent Archives: Blaina and District Hospital Plan, 1974.

The new NHS in 1948 had an idealistic vision to provide brand new modern hospitals. However, major building of hospitals did not begin until the 1960s under the government’s Hospital Building Programme. In Monmouthshire, the major new hospitals were built in the grounds of Nevill Hall Mansion and in the redevelopment of Royal Gwent Hospital. The plan was for these district general hospitals to amalgamate specialist hospitals and departments all at one site, and for smaller hospitals to lose services or close. The architects were heavily influenced by post-war ideas on modernism, functionality and use of the high-rise block.

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Gwent Archives: This 1962 design by the architects Sir Percy Thomas and Son for Nevill Hall Hospital shows the planned outline of the new hospital surrounding the original mansion.

The archive holds a large number of original plans for Nevill Hall, which was built in two phases from 1964-1974.

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Gwent Archives: The specialist departments include these 1963 designs for a Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy department complete with hydrotherapy pool, and an extensive Casualty department.

The hospital was officially opened in 1970. Teaching facilities were built for nurses in training schools and further education for doctors was provided through postgraduate medical centres.

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Gwent Archives: This 1963 plan for an ‘Untrained Nurses’ Home’ at Nevill Hall shows facilities provided such as a music room and a television room.

The plans also reflect trends in medicine. In the 1970s, geriatric medicine became a priority and new departments were built at Nevill Hall, Blaina & District and Abertillery & District Hospitals. There are plans in the collection for the building of local NHS Health Centres in the 1970s and 1980s.

This collection shows us how medical provision in Gwent was completely transformed and modernised under the NHS.

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Moderneiddio Meddygaeth: Cynlluniau Ysbytai yn Sir Fynwy

Mae casgliad Archifau Gwent o gynlluniau ysbytai o’r ugeinfed ganrif yn dangos sut y datblygodd a newidiodd syniadau ynglŷn â darpariaeth gofal iechyd dros ddeugain mlynedd gyntaf y GIG. Pan ffurfiwyd y gwasanaeth yn 1948, etifeddodd y GIG yn Sir Fynwy amrywiaeth eang o adeiladau ysbytai gan gynnwys nifer o ysbytai bach yn y cymoedd, Ysbytai Cyffredinol fel Ysbyty Brenhinol Gwent, ysbytai meddwl mawr fel Sant Cadog yng Nghaerllion, ysbytai heintiau fel Ysbyty Allt-yr-yn yng Nghasnewydd, hen blastai fel Nevill Hall, a chyn ysbytai tlotai fel Sant Iago yn Nhredegar a Sant Gwynllyw yng Nghasnewydd.

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Archifau Gwent: Mae’r cynllun hwn o ddechrau’r ugeinfed ganrif o Wyrcws Casnewydd yn dangos yr adeiladau helaeth o’r bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg a ddyluniwyd ar gyfer cannoedd o bobl, a ddaeth i ddwylo’r GIG fel Ysbyty Sant Gwynllyw ym 1948.

Mae hanes y cymdeithasau cymorth meddygol yn y cymoedd yn golygu bod gan Sir Fynwy fwy o ysbytai cymunedol ym 1948. Un enghraifft yw Ysbyty’r Blaenau a’r Ardal, a oedd wedi agor ym 1910 ar ôl tanysgrifiadau o ddwy geiniog yn y bunt gan weithwyr y glofeydd i ddarparu ar gyfer damweiniau diwydiannol, ond cafodd yr adeilad ei ymestyn yn fuan ym 1915-15 i dderbyn merched a phlant.

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Archifau Gwent: Cynllun Ysbyty’r Blaenau a’r Ardal, 1974.

Roedd gan y GIG newydd ym 1948 weledigaeth ddelfrydol i ddarparu ysbytai modern newydd sbon. Fodd bynnag, ni ddechreuwyd adeiladu ysbytai ar raddfa fawr tan y 1960au o dan Raglen Adeiladu Ysbytai’r llywodraeth. Yn Sir Fynwy, adeiladwyd y prif ysbytai newydd ar dir Plasty Nevill Hall ac ailddatblygwyd Ysbyty Brenhinol Gwent. Y cynllun oedd i’r ysbytai cyffredinol dosbarth hyn gyfuno ysbytai ac adrannau arbenigol ar un safle, ac i ysbytai llai colli gwasanaethau neu gau. Fe wnaeth syniadau ôl-ryfel ar foderniaeth, ymarferoldeb a’r defnydd o flociau uchel ddylanwadu’n helaeth ar y penseiri.

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Archifau Gwent: Mae’r cynllun hwn o 1962 gan y penseiri, Sir Percy Thomas and Son, ar gyfer Ysbyty Nevill Hall yn dangos yr amlinelliad a fwriadwyd ar gyfer yr ysbyty newydd o gwmpas y plasty gwreiddiol. Mae gan yr archif nifer fawr o’r cynlluniau gwreiddiol ar gyfer Nevill Hall, a adeiladwyd mewn dau gam o 1964-1974.

 

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Archifau Gwent: Mae’r adrannau arbenigol yn cynnwys y cynlluniau yma o 1963 ar gyfer adran Ffisiotherapi a Therapi Galwedigaethol gyda phwll hydrotherapi, ac adran ddamweiniau helaeth.

Agorwyd yr ysbyty’n swyddogol yn 1970. Adeiladwyd cyfleusterau addysgu ar gyfer nyrsys mewn ysgolion hyfforddi a darparwyd addysg bellach i feddygon trwy ganolfannau meddygol ôl-raddedig.

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Archifau Gwent: Mae’r cynllun hwn ym 1963 ar gyfer ‘Cartref i Nyrsys sydd heb hyfforddi’ yn Nevill Hall yn dangos y cyfleusterau a ddarparwyd, fel ystafell gerdd ac ystafell deledu.

Mae’r cynlluniau hefyd yn adlewyrchu tueddiadau mewn meddygaeth. Yn y 1970au, daeth meddygaeth geriatrig yn flaenoriaeth ac adeiladwyd adrannau newydd yn Ysbytai Nevill Hall, Blaenau a’r Ardal ac Abertyleri. Mae cynlluniau yn y casgliad i adeiladu Canolfannau Iechyd GIG lleol yn y 1970au a’r 1980au.

Mae’r casgliad hwn yn dangos i ni sut y cafodd y ddarpariaeth feddygol yng Ngwent ei thrawsnewid a’i moderneiddio o dan y GIG.

Newport Hospitals at War

Hello, this is Dr. Lucy Smith and I am taking over as Project Archivist on ‘From ‘A Penny in the Pound’ to ‘Free at the Point of Delivery’. My first task on joining the project was to work with records relating to hospitals in Newport and Caerphilly. These include some intriguing war-time registers from the Royal Gwent and St. Woolos hospitals.

In the Second World War, St Woolos Hospital, then known as Woolaston House, was used for Emergency Medical Services, official hospitals set up to cater for injured military personnel.

This Admission register shows that on August 8th 1944, the hospital admitted 83 new patients who had been injured in the D-Day landings. After 1944, Woolaston House also treated both German and Italian POWs from camps at Llanmartin and Llantarnam.

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Gwent Archives: EMS Admission Register, August 1944 showing intake of wounded soldiers from the D-Day landings. Ranks, regiments and ages are given.

 

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Gwent Archives: EMS Admissions Register May – June 1945, showing an Italian POW was admitted just before a British Ex-POW returning from a camp abroad. Other patients include members of the Polish army and a 31 year-old woman from the ATS.

 

Gwent Archives also holds wartime records from the Royal Gwent Hospital. These casualty admission slips show the occupations and injuries of a diverse range of patients who were brought to Newport by the upheaval of war. Interestingly, in these pre-NHS records, patients must give an ‘approved society’ to pay for medical treatment.

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Gwent Archives: Royal Gwent Hospital Casualty Admission Register 1942, showing American servicemen, a land girl, a Polish engineer, and industrial workers including a cutter, a roller from Lysaght’s works, and a female machinist.

 

These wartime registers are not only evidence of medical history but also document changes in society and the international movement of people through Newport during the war period.

Ysbytai Casnewydd adeg y Rhyfel

Helo, fi yw Dr Lucy Smith ac rwy’n cymryd drosodd fel Archifydd Prosiect ar ‘From’ A Penny in the Pound ‘. Fy mhrif dasg wrth ymuno â’r prosiect oedd catalogio cofnodion ysbytai yng Nghasnewydd, gan gynnwys rhai cofrestrau diddorol iawn ysbytai Brenhinol Gwent a Gwynlliw o gyfnod y rhyfel.

Yn ystod yr Ail Ryfel Byd, defnyddiwyd Ysbyty Gwynlliw a oedd yn cael ei alw’n Woolaston House ar y pryd, ar gyfer Gwasanaethau Meddygol Brys, sef ysbytai’r llywodraeth a sefydlwyd i drin milwyr anafedig.

Mae’r gofrestr dderbyn hon yn dangos, ar 8 Awst 1944, bod yr ysbyty wedi derbyn 83 o gleifion a anafwyd yn ddiweddar yn y glanio ar draethau Normandi. Ar ôl 1944, roedd Woolaston House hefyd yn trin carcharorion Rhyfel o’r Almaen a’r Eidal o wersylloedd yn Llanmartin a Llantarnam.

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Archifau Gwent: Cofrestr Derbyn EMS, Awst 1944 yn dangos y milwyr clwyfedig a dderbyniwyd yn dilyn y Glanio yn Normandi. Nodir rhengoedd, catrodau ac ysbytai blaenorol.

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Archifau Gwent: Cofrestr Derbyn EMS Mai 1945, yn dangos bod carcharor rhyfel o’r Eidal wedi cael ei dderbyn ychydig cyn, cyn-garcharor rhyfel o Brydain a ddychwelodd o wersyll dramor. Ymhlith y cleifion eraill mae aelodau byddin Pwyl a menyw 31 oed o’r ATS.

 

Mae gan Archifau Gwent hefyd gofnodion Ysbyty Brenhinol Gwent o gyfnod y rhyfel. Mae slipiau derbyn y clwyfedig yn dangos galwedigaethau ac anafiadau ystod amrywiol o gleifion y daethpwyd â hwy i Gasnewydd yn sgil y rhyfel. Yn ddiddorol, yn y cofnodion cyn y GIG, mae’n rhaid i gleifion gyflwyno ‘cymdeithas awdurdodedig’ i dalu am driniaeth feddygol.

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Archifau Gwent: Cofrestr Derbyn Clwyfedigion Ysbyty Brenhinol Gwent 1942, yn dangos gŵyr gwasanaeth Americanaidd, un o ferched y tir, peiriannydd o Wlad Pwyl, gweithwyr diwydiannol yn cynnwys ‘torrwr’, a ‘rholiwr’ o waith Lysaght, a menyw oedd yn beiriannydd.

 

Mae’r cofrestrau yn ystod y rhyfel yn dystiolaeth o hanes meddygol ond hefyd mae’n dogfennu newid mewn cymdeithas a symudiad pobl yn rhyngwladol trwy Gasnewydd yn ystod cyfnod y rhyfel.

Monmouth General Hospital

Soon to be catalogued is a small collection of records from Monmouth General Hospital. Originally situated in St James’s Square, the Monmouth Hospital and Dispensary first opened in 1868. In 1900, a larger plot of land on Hereford Road was acquired from the Duke of Beaufort for the development of a new hospital. The new Monmouth Hospital was opened in 1903 at a cost of £7,260 and had nine beds and a private ward, it was designed by Architect Richard Creed. The 1906 Kelly’s Trade Directory describes the hospital as ‘commodious, has good grounds attached and is beautifully situated.’

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Gwent Archives, Photograph of  the new Monmouth Hospital, early 20th century

 

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Gwent Archives, Proposed plan for the ground floor of Monmouth Hospital, early 20th century

 

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Gwent Archives, Proposed plan for the first floor of Monmouth Hospital, early 20th century

 

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Gwent Archives, Photograph of Monmouth Hospital’s Medical Officers, 1903

Ysbyty Cyffredinol Trefynwy

Yn fuan i’w gatalogio mae casgliad bychan o gofnodion o Ysbyty Cyffredinol Trefynwy. Roedd wedi ei leoli’n wreiddiol yn Sgwâr St James, ac agorodd Ysbyty a Fferyllfa Trefynwy am y tro cyntaf ym 1868. Ym 1900, cafwyd llain mwy o dir ar Hereford Road gan Ddug Beaufort i ddatblygu ysbyty newydd. Agorwyd Ysbyty newydd Trefynwy ym 1903 am gost o £7,260 gyda naw gwely a ward breifat. Cafodd ei ddylunio gan y Pensaer Richard Creed. Mae Kelly’s Trade Directory ym 1906 yn disgrifio’r ysbyty fel hyn: ‘commodious, has good grounds attached and is beautifully situated.’

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Archifau Gwent, Llun o Ysbyty newydd Trefynwy, yr 20fed ganrif gynnar

 

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Archifau Gwent, Cynllun arfaethedig ar gyfer llawr gwaelod Ysbyty Trefynwy, yr 20fed ganrif gynnar

 

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Archifau Gwent, Cynllun arfaethedig ar gyfer llawr cyntaf Ysbyty Trefynwy, yr 20fed ganrif gynnar

 

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Archifau Gwent, Llun o swyddogion meddygol Ysbyty Trefynwy, 1903

Early 20th Century Photographs of the Royal Gwent Hospital

The Newport & Monmouthshire Hospital was opened by Lord Tredegar on the 5th August 1901; it was later re-named the ‘Royal Gwent Hospital’ by Royal Charter in 1913.

The following photographs feature in the hospital’s 1914 annual report (Gwent Archives D3293/A/9). They provide a rare glimpse beyond the hospital’s walls and at what life was like for staff and patients there at the start of the 20th Century.

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Lluniau o Ysbyty Brenhinol Gwent o’r 20fed Ganrif gynnar

Agorwyd Ysbyty Casnewydd a Sir Fynwy gan Arglwydd Tredegar ar 5ed Awst 1901; cafodd ei enwi’n ddiweddarach yn ‘Ysbyty Brenhinol Gwent’ trwy Siarter Frenhinol yn 1913.

Mae’r lluniau canlynol yn ymddangos yn adroddiad blynyddol yr ysbyty ar gyfer 1914 (Archifau Gwent D3293/A/9).  Maen nhw’n rhoi cipolwg prin y tu hwnt i waliau’r ysbyty ac ar sut beth oedd bywyd i’r staff a’r cleifion yno ar ddechrau’r 20fed Ganrif.

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The Tredegar Park Cottage Hospital

Today is the 70th anniversary of the National Health Service, the ‘free at the point of delivery’ healthcare system for people living in the United Kingdom. To mark the occasion, I thought I’d share with you some of the newly discovered records of the Tredegar Park Cottage Hospital that can be found in the Aneurin Bevan Health Board Collection. But first, a little about the hospital:

The Tredegar Park Cottage Hospital played a significant role in the history of the NHS as it was here that Aneurin Bevan, as a member of the hospital management committee and its Chairman in 1929, first witnessed the model of free healthcare that was to inspire his formation of the NHS.

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Gwent Archives, Map of Tredegar showing the Cottage Hospital: Ordnance Survey, 3rd Edition 1920, Monmouthshire 11:13

Founded in 1904, the hospital was built and managed by the Tredegar Workmen’s Medical Aid Society on land donated by Lord Tredegar and with significant financial support from the Tredegar Iron and Coal Company, private donations and workers subscriptions. For a subscription fee of 3d (pence) in every pound earned members, and their families, were entitled to free access to medical care and treatment at the hospital. This fee was deducted straight from the worker’s wages, comparable to how we make National Insurance contributions today.

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Gwent Archives, Rules for Voluntary Subscribers, display board, early 20th Century

As the surviving administrative records of the Tredegar Workmen’s Medical Aid Society have been available at Gwent Archives for some time (catalogue D3246), it is exciting to have now received these new deposits which document the daily running of the Tredegar Park Cottage Hospital itself. The following are examples of the additions to our collection that are currently being catalogued.

Please note that as these records contain sensitive medical and personal data access is restricted under NHS and data protection legislation and a 100 year closure period is in place.   

Admission Registers

The admission registers for Tredegar Park Cottage Hospital date from 1925-1947. Although not a complete set, the documents we have provide a wealth of detailed information about the people who came to the hospital and the nature of their complaints. Some of the information recorded in these registers can be seen in the image below (names and addresses have been omitted throughout for data protection). This particular register from 1944-46 even notes if any child patients were evacuees!  (Not shown on image)

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Gwent Archives, Tredegar Park Cottage Hospital, Admission Register 1944-1946

Staff Salaries Ledger

This document from the early 1920s provides details about staff members, their positions and the amount of wages they earned. As doctors and surgeons are excluded from this record the highest paid member of staff may come as a surprise!

 

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Gwent Archives, Tredegar Park Cottage Hospital, Staff Salaries Ledger 1921-1925

Register of Operations

These final images are taken from the earliest register of operations that we have for the hospital. Dated from 1913, this register provides details about both the in-patient and out-patient operations that took place and includes information about the types of pain relieving drugs that were administered. The registers range in date up to 1950.

 

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Gwent Archives, Tredegar Park Cottage Hospital, Register of Operations (In Patients) 1913-1921

 

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Gwent Archives, Tredegar Park Cottage Hospital, Register of Operations (Out Patients) 1913-1921

 

Ysbyty Bach Parc Tredegar

Heddiw mae’n 70ain pen-blwydd y Gwasanaeth Iechyd Gwladol, y system gofal iechyd ‘am ddim yn y man darparu’ ar gyfer pobl sy’n byw yn y Deyrnas Unedig. I gofnodi’r achlysur, roeddwn i’n meddwl y buaswn yn rhannu gyda chi rhai o gofnodion Ysbyty Bach Parc Tredegar a gafodd eu darganfod yn ddiweddar ac sydd ar gael yng Nghasgliad Bwrdd Iechyd Aneurin Bevan. Ond, yn gyntaf, rhywfaint am yr ysbyty:

Chwaraeodd Ysbyty Bach Parc Tredegar ran arwyddocaol yn hanes y GIG gan mai yma y gwelodd Aneurin Bevan am y tro cyntaf, fel aelod o bwyllgor rheoli’r ysbyty, a’r Cadeirydd yn 1929, y model o ofal iechyd am ddim a’i ysbrydolodd i ffurfio’r GIG.

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Archifau Gwent, Map o Dredegar yn dangos yr Ysbyty Bach: Arolwg Ordnans, 3ydd Rhifyn 1920, Sir Fynwy 11:13

Sefydlwyd yr ysbyty yn 1904, a’i adeiladu a’i reoli gan Gymdeithas Cymorth Meddygol Gweithwyr Tredegar ar dir a roddwyd gan Arglwydd Tredegar a chyda chefnogaeth ariannol sylweddol oddi wrth y Tredegar Iron and Coal Company, rhoddion preifat a thanysgrifiadau gan weithwyr. Am dâl o 3d (ceiniog) yn y bunt, roedd hawl gan bob aelod, a’u teuluoedd, i gael gofal a thriniaeth feddygol am ddim yn yr ysbyty. Codwyd y tâl yn syth o gyflog y gweithiwr, yn debyg i sut y byddwn yn talu cyfraniadau Yswiriant Cenedlaethol heddiw.

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Archifau Gwent, Rheolau i Danysgrifwyr Gwirfoddol, bwrdd arddangos, dechrau’r 20fed Ganrif

Gan fod cofnodion gweinyddol Cymdeithas Cymorth Meddygol Gweithwyr Tredegar sydd yn weddill wedi bod ar gael yn Archifau Gwent ers peth amser (catalog D3246), mae’n gyffrous cael derbyn y cyfraniad newydd yma sy’n cofnodi’r gwaith dydd i ddydd o redeg Ysbyty Bach Parc Tredegar ei hun. Mae’r canlynol yn enghreifftiau o’r ychwanegiadau i’n casgliad sy’n cael eu catalogio ar hyn o bryd.                                        

Nodwch os gwelwch yn dda bod mynediad at y wybodaeth yma’n cael ei gyfyngu o dan gyfraith y GIG a chyfraith diogelu data oherwydd bod y cofnodion yn cynnwys data meddygol a phersonol sensitif ac mae cyfnod cau o 100 mlynedd mewn grym.   

Cofrestrau Derbyn

Mae’r cofrestrau ar gyfer Ysbyty Bach Parc Tredegar yn dyddio o 1925 i 1947.  Er nad oes casgliad cyflawn, mae’r dogfennau sydd gennym ni yn rhoi toreth o wybodaeth fanwl am y bobl a ddaeth i’r ysbyty a natur eu hanhwylderau. Mae peth o’r wybodaeth yn y cofrestrau yma i’w gweld yn y llun isod (dilëwyd enwau a chyfeiriadau at ddibenion diogelu data). Mae’r gofrestr arbennig yma o 1944-46 hyd yn oed yn nodi a oedd unrhyw blant a oedd yn gleifion yn faciwîs!  (Ddim yn y llun)

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Archifau Gwent, Ysbyty Bach Parc Tredegar, Cofrestr Derbyn 1944-1946

Cyfeirlyfr Cyflogau Staff

Mae’r ddogfen hon o’r 1920au yn rhoi manylion am aelodau o’r staff, eu swyddi a’u cyflog. Gan nad yw meddygon a llawfeddygon yn cael eu cynnwys yn y cofnod yma efallai bydd yr aelod o’r staff â’r tâl uchaf yn rhywfaint o syndod!

 

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Archifau Gwent, Ysbyty Bach Parc Tredegar, Cyfriflyfr Cyflogau Staff 1921-1925

Cofrestr Llawdriniaethau

Mae’r lluniau diweddaraf wedi cael eu cymryd o’r gofrestr gynharaf o lawdriniaethau sydd gennym ni ar gyfer yr ysbyty.  Wedi’u dyddio o 1913, mae’r gofrestr hon yn rhoi manylion am y llawdriniaethau a ddigwyddodd ac mae’n cynnwys gwybodaeth ynglŷn â’r mathau o gyffuriau a roddwyd i leddfu poen. Mae’r cofrestrau yn dyddio hyd at 1950.

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Archifau Gwent, Ysbyty Bach Parc Tredegar, Cofrestr Llawdriniaethau (Cleifion Preswyl) 1913-1921

 

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Archifau Gwent, Ysbyty Bach Parc Tredegar, Cofrestr Llawdriniaethau (Cleifion Allanol) 1913-1921