New Catalogues Now Online!

 

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As May 2019 has seen our work on this project draw to a close we are delighted to announce that new catalogues for the following hospital and health collections are now available at Gwent Archives:

C/HC Council Health Committee Records

C/HCM Monmouthshire Midwifery Service

D3246 Tredegar Working Men’s Medical Aid Society

D4947 Caerphilly District Miners’ Hospital

D5080 St Cadoc’s Hospital

D5081 Pen-Y-Fal Hospital

D5093 Newport, East Monmouthshire and Caerphilly NHS Records

D5922 Aneurin Bevan University Health Board

D6132 Monmouth General Hospital

The catalogues can also be viewed on our website:

http://www.gwentarchives.gov.uk/our-collection/archives/hospitals-health-care.aspx

http://www.gwentarchives.gov.uk/our-collection/archives/hospitals-health-care/mental-health.aspx

 

Catalogau Newydd Ar-lein Nawr!

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Gan fod Mai 2019 yn gweld ein gwaith ar y prosiect yma’n dirwyn i ben rydym ni’n falch o gael cyhoeddi fod catalogau newydd  ar gyfer y casgliadau canlynol mewn perthynas ag ysbytai ac iechyd nawr ar gael yn Archifau Gwent:

C/HC Cofnodion Pwyllgor Iechyd y Cyngor

C/HCM Gwasanaeth Mamolaeth Sir Fynwy

D3246 Cymdeithas Cymorth Feddygol Gweithwyr Tredegar

D4947 Ysbyty Rhanbarthol y Glowyr, Caerffili

D5080 Ysbyty Sant Cadog

D5081 Ysbyty Pen-Y-Fal

D5093 Cofnodion GIG Casnewydd, Dwyrain Mynwy a Chaerffili

D5922 Bwrdd Iechyd Prifysgol Aneurin Bevan

D6132 Ysbyty Cyffredinol Trefynwy

Mae’r catalogau hefyd i’w gweld ar ein gwefan:

http://www.gwentarchives.gov.uk/our-collection/archives/hospitals-health-care.aspx?lang=cy-GB

http://www.gwentarchives.gov.uk/our-collection/archives/hospitals-health-care/mental-health.aspx?lang=cy-GB

The ‘Golden Age’ of Midwifery in Monmouthshire

In the last few weeks, I have been cataloguing the records of the Monmouthshire County Council midwifery service (Gwent Archives Ref: C/HCM). The collection covers the years 1911-1969, spanning a similar era of social change to the BBC television programme ‘Call the Midwife’.

Each district midwife kept her own records, some covering predominantly urban valley districts, whereas others in the east of the county travelled over a wide rural area to visit their patients. Up to the mid-twentieth century, almost half of children were born at home, and midwives would visit patients regularly throughout the pregnancy and every day after giving birth for two weeks. This kind of continuous personal care is the reason why the 1940s-1960s period is sometimes known as the golden age of midwifery. It also meant a heavy workload for district midwives. For example, one midwife from the collection delivered 91 babies in two years.

The midwives kept Registers of Cases to log their patients and case records which give more detailed information on individuals. Reading the records comparatively gives us an idea of the social and domestic conditions for women in Monmouthshire. Even up to the 1960s, it is common for women to have had seven or eight children whilst under the age of 35. The records also show the growing use of medical drugs. Early registers contain very few entries where drugs were administered. Only three patients out of nine received any drugs at all in this record from 1911. Later, midwives gained certificates in the administration of gas and air, and filled out ‘Midwives Drugs Books’.

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Gwent Archives: Midwife’s Register of Cases 1914, Caldicot area. 

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Gwent Archives: Midwives Drugs Book, Form for Sending for Medical Aid, Pethidine Register, Midwives Drugs Supply Order Book. 

What is immediately noticeable about the records, is that the vast majority of patients are recorded as married and the records do not always give their first names, which would seem to modern eyes to be incredibly impersonal, but might well have been considered respectful at the time. Most of the midwives themselves were also married. Even before the Second World War, married women could be employed as midwives without having to face a ‘marriage bar’ as in the teaching profession. Meanwhile, midwives often recorded the occupation of the patient’s husband, presumably to assess the economic condition of the family. For example, occupations in the Pontypool area in the 1960s included BBC Cameraman, steel worker, painter, insurance management, assistant lecturer, assistant chemist and pattern maker. No occupations are ever noted for the patients themselves.

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Gwent Archives: Midwifery Training Centre, Tredegar. Register of Cases, 1916. 

The collection also includes the patient records of the Tredegar Nursing Home and Maternity Home. The former was initially funded by the Tredegar Medical Aid Society. This nursing home also acted as a training school for midwives in the county, and many births were presided over by experienced midwives with ‘pupils’ assisting. The midwives were often assisted by Dr. A.J. Cronin, the future author of ‘The Citadel’, the novel based on his experiences working for the Medical Aid Society in Tredegar.

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Gwent Archives: Midwifery Training Centre, Tredegar. Register of Cases, 1923.

Bibliography:

McIntosh, Tania. ‘A Social History of Maternity and Childbirth: Key Themes in Maternity Care’. London: Routledge, 2012.

Oes Aur Bydwreigiaeth yn Sir Fynwy

Yn ystod yr wythnosau diwethaf, rwyf wedi bod yn catalogio cofnodion gwasanaeth bydwreigiaeth Cyngor Sir Fynwy (Archifau Gwent Cyf: C/HCM). Mae’r casgliad yn pontio’r blynyddoedd 1911-1969, gan ymestyn dros gyfnod tebyg o newid cymdeithasol i raglen deledu’r BBC ‘Call the Midwife’.

Roedd pob bydwraig ardal yn cadw ei chofnodion ei hun, rhai ohonynt yn gweithio yn ardaloedd trefol y cymoedd yn bennaf, tra bod eraill yn nwyrain y sir yn teithio drwy ardal wledig eang i ymweld â’u cleifion. Hyd at ganol yr ugeinfed ganrif, roedd hyd at hanner plant yn cael eu geni yn y cartref, a byddai bydwragedd yn ymweld â chleifion yn rheolaidd trwy gydol y beichiogrwydd a phob dydd ar ôl yr enedigaeth am bythefnos. Y math hwn o ofal personol yw’r rheswm pam elwir y cyfnod 1940au – 1960au yn oes aur bydwreigiaeth. Roedd hefyd yn golygu baich gwaith drom i fydwragedd ardal. Er enghraifft, roedd un fydwraig o’r casgliad wedi helpu gyda genedigaeth 91 o fabanod mewn dwy flynedd.

Roedd y bydwragedd yn cadw Cofrestri o Achosion i gofnodi eu cleifion a chofnodion achos sy’n rhoi gwybodaeth fanylach ar unigolion. Mae’r cofnodion hyn yn rhoi syniad i ni o newidiadau mewn amodau cymdeithasol a domestig i fenywod yn Sir Fynwy. Hyd yn oed tan y 1960au, roedd hi’n gyffredin i gleifion gael saith neu wyth o blant tra eu bod dan 35 oed. Mae’r cofnodion hefyd yn dangos y defnydd cynyddol o gyffuriau meddygol. Ychydig iawn o gofnodion yn y cofrestrau cynnar sy’n nodi bod cyffuriau’n cael eu gweinyddu. Tri chlaf yn unig allan o naw a dderbyniodd unrhyw gyffuriau o gwbl yn y cofnod hwn o 1911 ymlaen. Yn ddiweddarach, mae bydwragedd yn nodi eu bod wedi derbyn tystysgrifau i weinyddu ‘nwy ac aer’ a’u bod yn cadw ‘Llyfrau Cyffuriau Bydwragedd’.

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Archifau Gwent: Cofrestr Achosion Bydwraig 1914, ardal Caldicot. 

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Archifau Gwent: Llyfr Cyffuriau Bydwragedd, Ffurflen ar gyfer Cais am Gymorth Meddygol, Cofrestr Pethidin, Llyfr Archebu Cyflenwad Cyffuriau Bydwragedd

Yr hyn sy’n amlwg ar unwaith am y cofnodion yw bod y mwyafrif llethol o gleifion yn cael eu cofnodi fel rhai priod ac nad yw’r cofnodion bob amser yn rhoi eu henwau cyntaf. Byddai hyn yn ymddangos yn hynod o amhersonol heddiw, ond efallai bod hyn yn cael ei ystyried yn barchus ar yr adeg. Roedd y rhan fwyaf o’r bydwragedd eu hunain hefyd yn briod. Hyd yn oed cyn yr Ail Ryfel Byd, roedd modd cyflogi menywod priod fel bydwragedd heb orfod wynebu’r un ‘gwaharddiad’ â’r proffesiwn addysgu. Yn y cyfamser, roedd bydwragedd yn aml yn cofnodi galwedigaeth gŵr y claf. Er enghraifft, roedd galwedigaethau yn ardal Pont-y-pŵl yn y 1960au yn cynnwys Dyn Camera gyda’r BBC, gweithiwr dur, rheolwr yswiriant, darlithydd cynorthwyol, a gwneuthurwr patrymau.

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Archifau Gwent: Canolfan Hyfforddi Bydwreigiaeth, Tredegar. Cofrestr Achosion, 1916. 

Nid oes galwedigaethau byth yn ymddangos ar gyfer y cleifion eu hunain. Mae’r casgliad hefyd yn cynnwys cofrestrau Cartref Nyrsio Tredegar a Chartref Mamolaeth. Roedd y cartref nyrsio hwn hefyd yn gweithredu fel ysgol hyfforddi bydwragedd yn y sir, a goruchwyliwyd nifer o enedigaethau gan fydwragedd profiadol gyda chymorth eu ‘disgyblion’. Yn aml, cynorthwywyd y bydwragedd gan Dr. A.J. Cronin, awdur ‘The Citadel’ erbyn hyn, sef y nofel a seiliodd ar ei brofiadau yn gweithio i’r Gymdeithas Cymorth Meddygol yn Nhredegar.

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Archifau Gwent: Canolfan Hyfforddi Bydwreigiaeth, Tredegar. Cofrestr Achosion, 1923. 

Llyfryddiaeth:

McIntosh, Tania. ‘A Social History of Maternity and Childbirth: Key Themes in Maternity Care’. London: Routledge, 2012.

Event Announcement – Public Health Care in Monmouthshire: An Historical Perspective

We are delighted to announce that our Wellcome Project event, Public Health Care in Monmouthshire: An Historical Perspective, will be taking place on Thursday 11th April 2019!

Public Health Care in Monmouthshire

The event will include talks from three leading speakers on health and social history in Wales, and promises to be a fascinating afternoon.

There will also be an accompanying exhibition on the history of healthcare in Monmouthshire featuring more archival material from Gwent Archives’ hospital collections.

The event is free. Please contact us at enquiries@gwentarchives.gov.uk or call 01495 353363 to book your place!

Cyhoeddi Digwyddiad – Gofal Iechyd Cyhoeddus yn Sir Fynwy: Golwg ar y Gorffennol

Rydym yn falch o gael cyhoeddi y bydd ein digwyddiad Prosiect Wellcome, Gofal Iechyd Cyhoeddus yn Sir Fynwy: Golwg ar y Gorffennol, yn digwydd ar ddydd Iau 11eg Ebrill 2019.

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Bydd y digwyddiad yn cynnwys anerchiadau gan dri siaradwr blaenllaw ar iechyd a hanes cymdeithasol yng Nghymru, ac mae’n addo bod yn brynhawn diddorol tu hwnt.

Bydd yn cynnwys arddangosfa ar hanes gofal iechyd yn Sir Fynwy, gan gynnwys mwy o gofnodion o gasgliadau ysbytai Archifau Gwent.

Mae’r digwyddiad am ddim. Cysylltwch â ni yn enquiries@gwentarchives.gov.uk neu ffoniwch 01495 353363 i gadw lle!

 

Modernising Medicine: Hospital Design in Monmouthshire

Gwent Archives’ collection of twentieth-century hospital plans demonstrates how ideas about medical care provision developed and changed throughout the first forty years of the NHS. When it formed in 1948, the NHS in Monmouthshire inherited a wide variety of hospital buildings including numerous cottage hospitals in the valleys, General Hospitals such as Royal Gwent, large mental hospitals such as St. Cadoc’s in Caerleon, isolation hospitals for the treatment of infectious diseases such as Allt-yr-yn Hospital in Newport, former mansions such as Nevill Hall, and former workhouse infirmaries such as St. James in Tredegar and St. Woolos in Newport.

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Gwent Archives: This early twentieth century plan of Newport Workhouse shows the extensive nineteenth-century buildings designed for the accommodation of hundreds of people, which came into the hands of the NHS as St. Woolos Hospital in 1948.

The history of the medical aid societies in the valleys meant that Monmouthshire had a high number of cottage hospitals in 1948. One example is Blaina and District Hospital, which had opened in 1910 following subscriptions of two pennies in the pound from colliery workers to provide for industrial accidents, but the building was soon extended in 1915-16 to accommodate women and children.

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Gwent Archives: Blaina and District Hospital Plan, 1974.

The new NHS in 1948 had an idealistic vision to provide brand new modern hospitals. However, major building of hospitals did not begin until the 1960s under the government’s Hospital Building Programme. In Monmouthshire, the major new hospitals were built in the grounds of Nevill Hall Mansion and in the redevelopment of Royal Gwent Hospital. The plan was for these district general hospitals to amalgamate specialist hospitals and departments all at one site, and for smaller hospitals to lose services or close. The architects were heavily influenced by post-war ideas on modernism, functionality and use of the high-rise block.

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Gwent Archives: This 1962 design by the architects Sir Percy Thomas and Son for Nevill Hall Hospital shows the planned outline of the new hospital surrounding the original mansion.

The archive holds a large number of original plans for Nevill Hall, which was built in two phases from 1964-1974.

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Gwent Archives: The specialist departments include these 1963 designs for a Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy department complete with hydrotherapy pool, and an extensive Casualty department.

The hospital was officially opened in 1970. Teaching facilities were built for nurses in training schools and further education for doctors was provided through postgraduate medical centres.

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Gwent Archives: This 1963 plan for an ‘Untrained Nurses’ Home’ at Nevill Hall shows facilities provided such as a music room and a television room.

The plans also reflect trends in medicine. In the 1970s, geriatric medicine became a priority and new departments were built at Nevill Hall, Blaina & District and Abertillery & District Hospitals. There are plans in the collection for the building of local NHS Health Centres in the 1970s and 1980s.

This collection shows us how medical provision in Gwent was completely transformed and modernised under the NHS.

Moderneiddio Meddygaeth: Cynlluniau Ysbytai yn Sir Fynwy

Mae casgliad Archifau Gwent o gynlluniau ysbytai o’r ugeinfed ganrif yn dangos sut y datblygodd a newidiodd syniadau ynglŷn â darpariaeth gofal iechyd dros ddeugain mlynedd gyntaf y GIG. Pan ffurfiwyd y gwasanaeth yn 1948, etifeddodd y GIG yn Sir Fynwy amrywiaeth eang o adeiladau ysbytai gan gynnwys nifer o ysbytai bach yn y cymoedd, Ysbytai Cyffredinol fel Ysbyty Brenhinol Gwent, ysbytai meddwl mawr fel Sant Cadog yng Nghaerllion, ysbytai heintiau fel Ysbyty Allt-yr-yn yng Nghasnewydd, hen blastai fel Nevill Hall, a chyn ysbytai tlotai fel Sant Iago yn Nhredegar a Sant Gwynllyw yng Nghasnewydd.

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Archifau Gwent: Mae’r cynllun hwn o ddechrau’r ugeinfed ganrif o Wyrcws Casnewydd yn dangos yr adeiladau helaeth o’r bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg a ddyluniwyd ar gyfer cannoedd o bobl, a ddaeth i ddwylo’r GIG fel Ysbyty Sant Gwynllyw ym 1948.

Mae hanes y cymdeithasau cymorth meddygol yn y cymoedd yn golygu bod gan Sir Fynwy fwy o ysbytai cymunedol ym 1948. Un enghraifft yw Ysbyty’r Blaenau a’r Ardal, a oedd wedi agor ym 1910 ar ôl tanysgrifiadau o ddwy geiniog yn y bunt gan weithwyr y glofeydd i ddarparu ar gyfer damweiniau diwydiannol, ond cafodd yr adeilad ei ymestyn yn fuan ym 1915-15 i dderbyn merched a phlant.

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Archifau Gwent: Cynllun Ysbyty’r Blaenau a’r Ardal, 1974.

Roedd gan y GIG newydd ym 1948 weledigaeth ddelfrydol i ddarparu ysbytai modern newydd sbon. Fodd bynnag, ni ddechreuwyd adeiladu ysbytai ar raddfa fawr tan y 1960au o dan Raglen Adeiladu Ysbytai’r llywodraeth. Yn Sir Fynwy, adeiladwyd y prif ysbytai newydd ar dir Plasty Nevill Hall ac ailddatblygwyd Ysbyty Brenhinol Gwent. Y cynllun oedd i’r ysbytai cyffredinol dosbarth hyn gyfuno ysbytai ac adrannau arbenigol ar un safle, ac i ysbytai llai colli gwasanaethau neu gau. Fe wnaeth syniadau ôl-ryfel ar foderniaeth, ymarferoldeb a’r defnydd o flociau uchel ddylanwadu’n helaeth ar y penseiri.

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Archifau Gwent: Mae’r cynllun hwn o 1962 gan y penseiri, Sir Percy Thomas and Son, ar gyfer Ysbyty Nevill Hall yn dangos yr amlinelliad a fwriadwyd ar gyfer yr ysbyty newydd o gwmpas y plasty gwreiddiol. Mae gan yr archif nifer fawr o’r cynlluniau gwreiddiol ar gyfer Nevill Hall, a adeiladwyd mewn dau gam o 1964-1974.

 

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Archifau Gwent: Mae’r adrannau arbenigol yn cynnwys y cynlluniau yma o 1963 ar gyfer adran Ffisiotherapi a Therapi Galwedigaethol gyda phwll hydrotherapi, ac adran ddamweiniau helaeth.

Agorwyd yr ysbyty’n swyddogol yn 1970. Adeiladwyd cyfleusterau addysgu ar gyfer nyrsys mewn ysgolion hyfforddi a darparwyd addysg bellach i feddygon trwy ganolfannau meddygol ôl-raddedig.

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Archifau Gwent: Mae’r cynllun hwn ym 1963 ar gyfer ‘Cartref i Nyrsys sydd heb hyfforddi’ yn Nevill Hall yn dangos y cyfleusterau a ddarparwyd, fel ystafell gerdd ac ystafell deledu.

Mae’r cynlluniau hefyd yn adlewyrchu tueddiadau mewn meddygaeth. Yn y 1970au, daeth meddygaeth geriatrig yn flaenoriaeth ac adeiladwyd adrannau newydd yn Ysbytai Nevill Hall, Blaenau a’r Ardal ac Abertyleri. Mae cynlluniau yn y casgliad i adeiladu Canolfannau Iechyd GIG lleol yn y 1970au a’r 1980au.

Mae’r casgliad hwn yn dangos i ni sut y cafodd y ddarpariaeth feddygol yng Ngwent ei thrawsnewid a’i moderneiddio o dan y GIG.

Newport Hospitals at War

Hello, this is Dr. Lucy Smith and I am taking over as Project Archivist on ‘From ‘A Penny in the Pound’ to ‘Free at the Point of Delivery’. My first task on joining the project was to work with records relating to hospitals in Newport and Caerphilly. These include some intriguing war-time registers from the Royal Gwent and St. Woolos hospitals.

In the Second World War, St Woolos Hospital, then known as Woolaston House, was used for Emergency Medical Services, official hospitals set up to cater for injured military personnel.

This Admission register shows that on August 8th 1944, the hospital admitted 83 new patients who had been injured in the D-Day landings. After 1944, Woolaston House also treated both German and Italian POWs from camps at Llanmartin and Llantarnam.

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Gwent Archives: EMS Admission Register, August 1944 showing intake of wounded soldiers from the D-Day landings. Ranks, regiments and ages are given.

 

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Gwent Archives: EMS Admissions Register May – June 1945, showing an Italian POW was admitted just before a British Ex-POW returning from a camp abroad. Other patients include members of the Polish army and a 31 year-old woman from the ATS.

 

Gwent Archives also holds wartime records from the Royal Gwent Hospital. These casualty admission slips show the occupations and injuries of a diverse range of patients who were brought to Newport by the upheaval of war. Interestingly, in these pre-NHS records, patients must give an ‘approved society’ to pay for medical treatment.

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Gwent Archives: Royal Gwent Hospital Casualty Admission Register 1942, showing American servicemen, a land girl, a Polish engineer, and industrial workers including a cutter, a roller from Lysaght’s works, and a female machinist.

 

These wartime registers are not only evidence of medical history but also document changes in society and the international movement of people through Newport during the war period.

Ysbytai Casnewydd adeg y Rhyfel

Helo, fi yw Dr Lucy Smith ac rwy’n cymryd drosodd fel Archifydd Prosiect ar ‘From’ A Penny in the Pound ‘. Fy mhrif dasg wrth ymuno â’r prosiect oedd catalogio cofnodion ysbytai yng Nghasnewydd, gan gynnwys rhai cofrestrau diddorol iawn ysbytai Brenhinol Gwent a Gwynlliw o gyfnod y rhyfel.

Yn ystod yr Ail Ryfel Byd, defnyddiwyd Ysbyty Gwynlliw a oedd yn cael ei alw’n Woolaston House ar y pryd, ar gyfer Gwasanaethau Meddygol Brys, sef ysbytai’r llywodraeth a sefydlwyd i drin milwyr anafedig.

Mae’r gofrestr dderbyn hon yn dangos, ar 8 Awst 1944, bod yr ysbyty wedi derbyn 83 o gleifion a anafwyd yn ddiweddar yn y glanio ar draethau Normandi. Ar ôl 1944, roedd Woolaston House hefyd yn trin carcharorion Rhyfel o’r Almaen a’r Eidal o wersylloedd yn Llanmartin a Llantarnam.

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Archifau Gwent: Cofrestr Derbyn EMS, Awst 1944 yn dangos y milwyr clwyfedig a dderbyniwyd yn dilyn y Glanio yn Normandi. Nodir rhengoedd, catrodau ac ysbytai blaenorol.

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Archifau Gwent: Cofrestr Derbyn EMS Mai 1945, yn dangos bod carcharor rhyfel o’r Eidal wedi cael ei dderbyn ychydig cyn, cyn-garcharor rhyfel o Brydain a ddychwelodd o wersyll dramor. Ymhlith y cleifion eraill mae aelodau byddin Pwyl a menyw 31 oed o’r ATS.

 

Mae gan Archifau Gwent hefyd gofnodion Ysbyty Brenhinol Gwent o gyfnod y rhyfel. Mae slipiau derbyn y clwyfedig yn dangos galwedigaethau ac anafiadau ystod amrywiol o gleifion y daethpwyd â hwy i Gasnewydd yn sgil y rhyfel. Yn ddiddorol, yn y cofnodion cyn y GIG, mae’n rhaid i gleifion gyflwyno ‘cymdeithas awdurdodedig’ i dalu am driniaeth feddygol.

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Archifau Gwent: Cofrestr Derbyn Clwyfedigion Ysbyty Brenhinol Gwent 1942, yn dangos gŵyr gwasanaeth Americanaidd, un o ferched y tir, peiriannydd o Wlad Pwyl, gweithwyr diwydiannol yn cynnwys ‘torrwr’, a ‘rholiwr’ o waith Lysaght, a menyw oedd yn beiriannydd.

 

Mae’r cofrestrau yn ystod y rhyfel yn dystiolaeth o hanes meddygol ond hefyd mae’n dogfennu newid mewn cymdeithas a symudiad pobl yn rhyngwladol trwy Gasnewydd yn ystod cyfnod y rhyfel.